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Cellosaurus WI-38 (CVCL_0579)

Cell line name WI-38
Synonyms Wi-38; WI 38; WI38; Wistar Institute-38; AG06814-J; AG06814-M; AG06814-N
Accession CVCL_0579
Resource Identification Initiative To cite this cell line use: WI-38 (RRID:CVCL_0579)
Comments Group: Vaccine production cell line.
Part of: Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) collection (transferred to ATCC in 1982).
Biotechnology: Used for the production of RA27/3 - the first rubella virus vaccine.
Biotechnology: Used for the production of live oral adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine used by the US military. Produced first by Wyeth Laboratories from 1971 to 1999 and from 2011 onward by Barr Pharmaceuticals.
Biotechnology: Was used in the early 1970's for the production of the Human Diploid Cell Vaccine (HDCV) vaccine agains rabies by Institut Merieux.
Characteristics: Used in many context such as senescence and aging studies.
Characteristics: Life expectancy of 50 +- 10 population doublings.
Characteristics: Senesces at 38 PDL (PubMed=17395773).
Doubling time: ~24 hours (ATCC; ECACC).
Omics: miRNA expression profiling.
Omics: SNP array analysis.
Omics: Transcriptome analysis.
Anecdotal: Hayflick when numbering diploid cell strains 'jumped' directly from WI-27 (which failed) to WI-38 (CelloPub=CLPUB00391).
Species of origin Homo sapiens (Human) (NCBI Taxonomy: 9606)
Hierarchy Children:
CVCL_1R80 (GM08854)CVCL_1R88 (GM10322)CVCL_1R89 (GM10323)
CVCL_3142 (PSV811)CVCL_7871 (UTHs)CVCL_L281 (WI-38 CT-1)
CVCL_5605 (WI-38 KTr)CVCL_2759 (WI-38 VA13 subline 2RA)CVCL_2812 (WI-38-30)
CVCL_2813 (WI-38-40)CVCL_N806 (WI-38/hTERT/GFP-RAF-ER)CVCL_A051 (WIF12-1)
Sex of cell Female
Age at sampling 16FW
Category Finite cell line
STR profile Source(s): ATCC; ECACC; JCRB; RCB

Markers:
AmelogeninX
CSF1PO10,12
D13S31711
D16S53911,12
D5S81810
D7S8209,11
TH018,9.3
TPOX8
vWA19,20
Web pages https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WI-38
https://www.ascb.org/activation-energy/the-story-of-wi-38-the-other-famous-cell-line/
http://www.bioedge.org/index.php/bioethics/bioethics_article/10637
http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2017/03/the_woman_whose_aborted_fetus_helped_create_the_rubella_vaccine.html
http://www.aginginterventionfoundation.org/BookReview2.pdf
Publications

PubMed=14064953; DOI=10.1164/arrd.1963.88.3P2.387
Hayflick L.
A comparison of primary monkey kidney, heteroploid cell lines, and human diploid cell strains for human virus vaccine preparation.
Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 88 Suppl. 3:387-393(1963)

PubMed=14218592
Wiktor T.J., Fernandes M.V., Koprowski H.
Cultivation of rabies virus in human diploid cell strain WI-38.
J. Immunol. 93:353-366(1964)

PubMed=5834207; DOI=10.1001/archpedi.1965.02090030401007
Plotkin S.A., Cornfeld D., Ingalls T.H.
Studies of immunization with living rubella virus. Trials in children with a strain cultured from an aborted fetus.
Am. J. Dis. Child. 110:381-389(1965)

PubMed=14315085; DOI=10.1016/0014-4827(65)90211-9
Hayflick L.
The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains.
Exp. Cell Res. 37:614-636(1965)

PubMed=5956336; DOI=10.1038/210100a0
Jacobs J.P.
A simple medium for the propagation and maintenance of human diploid cell strains.
Nature 210:100-101(1966)

PubMed=5347639; DOI=10.1016/0014-4827(69)90166-9
Stanbridge E., Onen M., Perkins F.T., Hayflick L.
Karyological and morphological characteristics of human diploid cell strain WI-38 infected with mycoplasmas.
Exp. Cell Res. 57:397-410(1969)

PubMed=4329447; DOI=10.1084/jem.133.3.454
Giraldo G., Beth E., Hirshaut Y., Aoki T., Old L.J., Boyse E.A., Chopra H.C.
Human sarcomas in culture. Foci of altered cells and a common antigen; induction of foci and antigen in human fibroblast cultures by filtrates.
J. Exp. Med. 133:454-478(1971)

PubMed=4203458
Petricciani J.C., Wallace R.E., McCoy D.W.
A comparison of three in vivo assays for cell tumorigenicity.
Cancer Res. 34:105-108(1974)

PubMed=1031681
Jacobs J.P.
Updated results on the karyology of the WI-38, MRC-5 and MRC-9 cell strains.
Dev. Biol. Stand. 37:155-156(1976)

PubMed=17792436; DOI=10.1126/science.192.4235.125
Wade N.
Hayflick's tragedy: the rise and fall of a human cell line.
Science 192:125-127(1976)

PubMed=211143
Friedman H.M., Koropchak C.
Comparison of WI-38, MRC-5, and IMR-90 cell strains for isolation of viruses from clinical specimens.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 7:368-371(1978)

PubMed=656543; DOI=10.1016/S0006-3495(78)85487-3
Ehmann U.K., Cook K.H., Friedberg E.C.
The kinetics of thymine dimer excision in ultraviolet-irradiated human cells.
Biophys. J. 22:249-264(1978)

PubMed=699332; DOI=10.1016/0009-8981(78)90444-8
Knaup G., Pfleiderer G., Bayreuther K.
Human diploid lung fibroblast cell lines WI 26 and WI 38 exhibit isozyme shift of alkaline phosphatase after viral transformation.
Clin. Chim. Acta 88:375-383(1978)

PubMed=7065527; DOI=10.1164/arrd.1982.125.2.222
Hay R.J., Williams C.D., Macy M.L., Lavappa K.S.
Cultured cell lines for research on pulmonary physiology available through the American Type Culture Collection.
Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125:222-232(1982)

DOI=10.1016/B978-0-12-007903-2.50014-3
Hayflick L.
The coming of age of WI-38.
Adv. Cell Cult. 3:303-316(1984)

PubMed=17395773; DOI=10.1634/stemcells.2006-0504
Sudo K., Kanno M., Miharada K., Ogawa S., Hiroyama T., Saijo K., Nakamura Y.
Mesenchymal progenitors able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and/or adipogenic cells in vitro are present in most primary fibroblast-like cell populations.
Stem Cells 25:1610-1617(2007)

PubMed=19896956; DOI=10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.10.013
Wilson P.F., Nham P.B., Urbin S.S., Hinz J.M., Jones I.M., Thompson L.H.
Inter-individual variation in DNA double-strand break repair in human fibroblasts before and after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation.
Mutat. Res. 683:91-97(2010)

PubMed=20215515; DOI=10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3458
Rothenberg S.M., Mohapatra G., Rivera M.N., Winokur D., Greninger P., Nitta M., Sadow P.M., Sooriyakumar G., Brannigan B.W., Ulman M.J., Perera R.M., Wang R., Tam A., Ma X.-J., Erlander M., Sgroi D.C., Rocco J.W., Lingen M.W., Cohen E.E.W., Louis D.N., Settleman J., Haber D.A.
A genome-wide screen for microdeletions reveals disruption of polarity complex genes in diverse human cancers.
Cancer Res. 70:2158-2164(2010)

PubMed=22984048; DOI=10.1126/science.337.6100.1292-a
Hayflick L.
Paying for tissue: the case of WI-38.
Science 337:1292-1292(2012)

DOI=10.1038/498407a
Nature editorial staff
A culture of consent.
Nature 498:407-407(2013)

DOI=10.1038/498422a
Wadman M.
Medical research: cell division.
Nature 498:422-426(2013)

PubMed=25063771; DOI=10.18632/aging.100679
Sidler C., Woycicki R., Kovalchuk I., Kovalchuk O.
WI-38 senescence is associated with global and site-specific hypomethylation.
Aging (Albany NY) 6:564-574(2014)

PubMed=25903999; DOI=10.1002/biot.201400388
Genzel Y.
Designing cell lines for viral vaccine production: where do we stand?
Biotechnol. J. 10:728-740(2015)

CLPUB00391
Wadman M.
The vaccine race: science, politics, and the human costs of defeating disease.
(In) ISBN 9780525427537; pp.1-436; Viking; New York (2016)

Cross-references
Cell line collections ATCC; CCL-75
ATCC; CRL-7728 - Discontinued
Coriell; AG06814-J
Coriell; AG06814-M
Coriell; AG06814-N
ECACC; 90020107
IZSLER; BS CL 90
JCRB; IFO50075
JCRB; JCRB9017 - Discontinued
KCB; KCB 200556YJ
KCLB; 10075 - Discontinued
RCB; RCB0702
RCB; RCB0704
TKG; TKG 0360
Cell line databases/resources CLDB; cl4703
CLDB; cl4704
CLDB; cl4705
CCRID; 3111C0001CCC000210
CCRID; 3111C0002000000067
CCRID; 3131C0001000200008
CCRID; 3142C0001000000016
IGRhCellID; WI38
Lonza; 495
Ontologies BTO; BTO:0000458
CLO; CLO_0009591
CLO; CLO_0009594
CLO; CLO_0035526
CLO; CLO_0035534
EFO; EFO_0001260
MCCL; MCC:0000485
Biological sample resources BioSample; SAMN01821606
BioSample; SAMN01821721
BioSample; SAMN03471285
Chemistry resources ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307614
ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL614391
Gene expression databases GEO; GSE12450
GEO; GSE33710
GEO; GSM827323
Other Wikidata; Q7950532