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Cellosaurus - SARS-CoV-2 relevant information

Table of contents
(A) Cell lines that have successfully been used to grow SARS-CoV-2
(B) Cell lines shown to be not suitable to grow SARS-CoV-2
(C) Cellular vaccine cell lines
(D) Hybridomas producing mAB against SARS-CoV proteins and that could be used against SARS-CoV-2

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Version 5 of March 31, 2020


(A) Cell lines that have successfully been used to grow SARS-CoV-2

(A-1) Vero cell lines

The following three "Vero" kidney cell lines are widely used to grow SARS-CoV-2 in the following decreasing order of efficiency.

1) VeroE6/TMPRSS2 (CVCL_YQ49)

2) Vero C1008 (better known as Vero E6) (CVCL_0574)

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a Vero E6 cell (blue) heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (orange), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured and color-enhanced at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland. Credit: NIAID
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

3) Vero (CVCL_0059)

(A-2) Other cell lines

Caco-2 (CVCL_0025)

According to Kim et al. (PubMed=32149036): "The SARS-CoV-2 could replicate in other cells (Vero E6 and Caco-II cells), in addition to Vero cells (data not shown)."

Calu-3 (CVCL_0609)

Note: In 2010 the group of Tseng from UTMB has have established (PubMed=20090954) Calu-3 2B4 (CVCL_YZ47 in next release of Cellosaurus) which is a clone of Calu-3 with increased expression of ACE2 and high susceptibility to SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection.

HEK293T (CVCL_0063)

According to Harcourt et al. (DOI=10.1101/2020.03.02.972935): "both HUH7.0 and 293T cells showed only modest viral replication" (also see figure 3A).

Huh-7 (CVCL_0336)

LLC-MK2 (CVCL_3009)

According to Ou et al. (PubMed=32221306): "LLCMK2 cells, a rhesus monkey kidney epithelium cell line, exhibited different susceptibility to SARS-CoV S and SARS-CoV-2 S transduction, but the reasons for this are currently not known and require further investigation."


(B) Cell lines shown to be not suitable to grow SARS-CoV-2

A-549 (CVCL_0023)

Does not seem to be well suited for this purpose:

Efk3B from bat (CVCL_GZ34)

According to Harcourt et al. (DOI=10.1101/2020.03.02.972935): "In addition, SARS-CoV-2 failed to replicate in the bat EFK3B cells which are susceptible to MERS-CoV." (also see figure 3A).


(C) Cellular vaccines cell lines

A number of companies and academic organisations are developing cell-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. To do so they are using different parent cell lines.

CHO-K1 (CVCL_0214) or one of its many derivatives seems to be used by CSIRO (https://www.theage.com.au/national/coronavirus-outbreak-how-the-covid-19-vaccine-is-being-made-20200220-p542rh.html: "On February 21 the team's vaccine draft was sent to the CSIRO's manufacturing facility in the Melbourne suburb of Clayton, and manufacturing of a pilot dose began. The facility houses a 200-litre fermenting vat that will be filled with a "soup" of Chinese hamster ovary cells - the best cells for the task - in a nutritious goo."

K-562 (CVCL_0004) is used by Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc.; see Ji et al. (DOI=https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100026): "Engineered Spike-1 protein is expressed on the surface of K562 human myelogenous leukemia cells via introduction of expression constructs into the cellular genome allowing for stable expression of the transgene. Stable-modified K562 clones are selected, profiled for Spike-1 expression as well as overall immunogenic potency, and prepared as GMP master cell bank to be used for large scale manufacturing. Irradiated cells are formulated as vaccine product and administered via intramuscular or subcutaneous injection."

PER.C6 (CVCL_G704) is used by Johnson & Johnson (https://www.jnj.com/coronavirus): "Johnson & Johnson is mobilizing resources of its Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies in response to the outbreak to develop a possible preventive vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2, leveraging Janssen's AdVac (R) and PER.C6 (R) technology, that provide the ability to rapidly upscale production of the optimal vaccine candidate."


(D) Hybridomas producing mAB against SARS-CoV proteins and that could be used against SARS-CoV-2

Against spike protein (S) [UniProtKB; P59594]

Against nucleoprotein (N) [UniProtKB; P59595]