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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P02647: Variant p.Arg197Cys

Apolipoprotein A-I
Gene: APOA1
Variant information

Variant position:  197
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Type of variant:  LB/B
The variants are classified into three categories: LP/P, LB/B and US.
  • LP/P: likely pathogenic or pathogenic.
  • LB/B: likely benign or benign.
  • US: uncertain significance

Residue change:  From Arginine (R) to Cysteine (C) at position 197 (R197C, p.Arg197Cys).
Indicates the amino acid change of the variant. The one-letter and three-letter codes for amino acids used in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are those adopted by the commission on Biochemical Nomenclature of the IUPAC-IUB.

Physico-chemical properties:  Change from large size and basic (R) to medium size and polar (C)
The physico-chemical property of the reference and variant residues and the change implicated.

BLOSUM score:  -3
The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. The log-odds score measures the logarithm for the ratio of the likelihood of two amino acids appearing by chance. The Blosum62 substitution matrix is used. This substitution matrix contains scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another:
  • Lowest score: -4 (low probability of substitution).
  • Highest score: 11 (high probability of substitution).
More information can be found on the following page

Polymorphism:  Genetic variations in APOA1 can result in APOA1 deficiency and are associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol [MIM:107680].
Additional information on the polymorphism described.

Variant description:  In Milano; no evidence of association with premature vascular disease; associated with decreased HDL levels and moderate increase in triglycerides; allows the formation of disulfide-linked homodimers via the introduced cysteine; assembles properly in HDL; alters protein structure; has no tendency to form fibrils and aggregates.
Any additional useful information about the variant.

Other resources:  
Links to websites of interest for the variant.



Sequence information

Variant position:  197
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Protein sequence length:  267
The length of the canonical sequence.

Location on the sequence:   RAHVDALRTHLAPYSDELRQ  R LAARLEALKENGGARLAEYH
The residue change on the sequence. Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown.

Residue conservation: 
The multiple alignment of the region surrounding the variant against various orthologous sequences.

Human                         RAHVDALRTHLAPYSDELRQRLAARLEALKENGGARLAEYH

Gorilla                       RAHVDALRTHLAPYSDELRQRLAARLEALKENGGARLAEYH

                              RTHVDALRAQLAPYSDDLRERLAARLEALKEGGGASLAEYH

Rhesus macaque                RAHVDALRTHLAPYSDELRQRLAARLEALKENGGARLAEYH

Chimpanzee                    RAHVDALRTHLAPYSDELRQRLAARLEALKENGGARLAEYH

Mouse                         RTHVDSLRTQLAPHSEQMRESLAQRLAELKSN--PTLNEYH

Rat                           RVNADALRAKFGLYSDQMRENLAQRLTEIKNH--PTLIEYH

Pig                           RAHVEALRQHVAPYSDDLRQRMAARFEALKEGGGS-LAEYQ

Bovine                        RAHVETLRQQLAPYSDDLRQRLTARLEALKEGGGS-LAEYH

Rabbit                        RTHVDTLRTKLAPYSNELQQRLAARLESIKEGGGASLAEYQ

Chicken                       RGHVEELRKNLAPYSDELRQKLSQKLEEIREKGIPQASEYQ

Zebrafish                     ESNIEETKSKVVPMVEAVRTKLTERLEDLRTMAAPYAEEYK

Sequence annotation in neighborhood:  
The regions or sites of interest surrounding the variant. In general the features listed are posttranslational modifications, binding sites, enzyme active sites, local secondary structure or other characteristics reported in the cited references. The "Sequence annotation in neighborhood" lines have a fixed format:
  • Type: the type of sequence feature.
  • Positions: endpoints of the sequence feature.
  • Description: contains additional information about the feature.

TypePositionsDescription
Chain 19 – 267 Proapolipoprotein A-I
Chain 25 – 267 Apolipoprotein A-I
Chain 25 – 266 Truncated apolipoprotein A-I
Repeat 189 – 210 7
Region 68 – 267 10 X approximate tandem repeats
Helix 166 – 203


Literature citations

Secondary structure changes in ApoA-I Milano (R173C) are not accompanied by a decrease in protein stability or solubility.
Petrlova J.; Dalla-Riva J.; Morgelin M.; Lindahl M.; Krupinska E.; Stenkula K.G.; Voss J.C.; Lagerstedt J.O.;
PLoS ONE 9:E96150-E96150(2014)
Cited for: CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT MILANO CYS-197;

Apolipoprotein A-IMilano. Detection of normal A-I in affected subjects and evidence for a cysteine for arginine substitution in the variant A-I.
Weisgraber K.H.; Rall S.C. Jr.; Bersot T.P.; Mahley R.W.; Franceschini G.; Sirtori C.R.;
J. Biol. Chem. 258:2508-2513(1983)
Cited for: VARIANT MILANO CYS-197;

Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. They are not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnostic, treatment or care.