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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P08686: Variant p.Gly291Ser

Steroid 21-hydroxylase
Gene: CYP21A2
Chromosomal location: 6p21.3
Variant information

Variant position:  291
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Type of variant:  Disease [Disclaimer]
The variants are classified into three categories: Disease, Polymorphism and Unclassified.
  • Disease: Variants implicated in disease according to literature reports.
  • Polymorphism: Variants not reported to be implicated in disease.
  • Unclassified: Variants with uncertain implication in disease according to literature reports. Evidence against or in favor of a pathogenic role is limited and/or conflicting.

Residue change:  From Glycine (G) to Serine (S) at position 291 (G291S, p.Gly291Ser).
Indicates the amino acid change of the variant. The one-letter and three-letter codes for amino acids used in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are those adopted by the commission on Biochemical Nomenclature of the IUPAC-IUB.

Physico-chemical properties:  Change from glycine (G) to small size and polar (S)
The physico-chemical property of the reference and variant residues and the change implicated.

BLOSUM score:  0
The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. The log-odds score measures the logarithm for the ratio of the likelihood of two amino acids appearing by chance. The Blosum62 substitution matrix is used. This substitution matrix contains scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another:
  • Lowest score: -4 (low probability of substitution).
  • Highest score: 11 (high probability of substitution).
More information can be found on the following page

Involvement in disease:  Adrenal hyperplasia 3 (AH3) [MIM:201910]: A form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a common recessive disease due to defective synthesis of cortisol. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is characterized by androgen excess leading to ambiguous genitalia in affected females, rapid somatic growth during childhood in both sexes with premature closure of the epiphyses and short adult stature. Four clinical types: 'salt wasting' (SW, the most severe type), 'simple virilizing' (SV, less severely affected patients), with normal aldosterone biosynthesis, 'non-classic form' or late-onset (NC or LOAH) and 'cryptic' (asymptomatic). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10051010, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10094562, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10198222, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10364682, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10391209, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10408778, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10408786, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10443693, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10496074, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10720040, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11232002, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11598371, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11600539, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11746135, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12213891, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12222711, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12788866, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12887291, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12915679, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1406699, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1406709, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14676460, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14715874, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1496017, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15110320, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15126570, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046588, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1644925, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16984992, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18319307, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18381579, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18445671, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1864962, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1937474, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20080860, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2072928, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21169732, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22014889, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2303461, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27721825, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3038528, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3257825, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3260007, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3267225, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3497399, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3871526, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7749410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8478006, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8485582, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8989258, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9067760, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9187661, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9497336, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9580109}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
The name and a short description of the disease associated with the variant. For more information about the disease, the user can refer to OMIM, following the link provided after the disease acronym.

Variant description:  In AH3; salt wasting form; less then 1% activity.
Any additional useful information about the variant.

Other resources:  
Links to websites of interest for the variant.



Sequence information

Variant position:  291
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Protein sequence length:  494
The length of the canonical sequence.

Location on the sequence:   EGSGQLLEGHVHMAAVDLLI  G GTETTANTLSWAVVFLLHHP
The residue change on the sequence. Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown.

Residue conservation: 
The multiple alignment of the region surrounding the variant against various orthologous sequences.

Human                         EGSGQLLEGHVHMAAVDLLIGGTETTANTLSWAVVFLLHHP

                              EGCGQLLEGHVHMSVVDLFIGGTETTATTLSWAVAFLLHHP

Mouse                         KDEERLHEGHVHMSVVDLFIGGTETTATTLSWAVAFLLHHP

Rat                           RDPGQLHERHVHMSVVDLFVGGTETTAATLSWAVAFLLHHP

Pig                           EGQGQLLEGHVHMSVVDLFIGGTETTANTLSWAVVYLLHHP

Bovine                        EGPGQLLEGHVHMSVVDLFIGGTETTASTLSWAVAFLLHHP

Cat                           KGHGRLLEGHVHMSVVDLFIGGTETTATTLSWAVAFLLHHP

Sequence annotation in neighborhood:  
The regions or sites of interest surrounding the variant. In general the features listed are posttranslational modifications, binding sites, enzyme active sites, local secondary structure or other characteristics reported in the cited references. The "Sequence annotation in neighborhood" lines have a fixed format:
  • Type: the type of sequence feature.
  • Positions: endpoints of the sequence feature.
  • Description: contains additional information about the feature.

TypePositionsDescription
Chain 1 – 494 Steroid 21-hydroxylase
Mutagenesis 281 – 281 V -> I. Normal KM but 50% reduced Vmax.
Mutagenesis 281 – 281 V -> T. Normal KM but 10% reduced Vmax.
Helix 278 – 309


Literature citations

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: three additional mutated alleles and establishment of phenotype-genotype relationships of common mutations.
Wedell A.; Ritzen E.M.; Haglund-Stengler B.; Luthman H.;
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89:7232-7236(1992)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 LEU-105; SER-291 AND SER-453;

Naturally occurring mutants of human steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) pinpoint residues important for enzyme activity and stability.
Nikoshkov A.; Lajic S.; Vlamis-Gardikas A.; Tranebjaerg L.; Holst M.; Wedell A.; Luthman H.;
J. Biol. Chem. 273:6163-6165(1998)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 GLU-196 DEL; SER-291 AND PRO-483;

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: mutational spectrum in Denmark, three novel mutations, and in vitro expression analysis.
Ohlsson G.; Mueller J.; Skakkebaek N.E.; Schwartz M.;
Hum. Mutat. 13:482-486(1999)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 LEU-30; GLU-64; ASN-172; ASN-236; LEU-281; SER-291; TRP-356 AND VAL-362;

Mutational spectrum of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene in Austria: identification of a novel missense mutation.
Baumgartner-Parzer S.M.; Schulze E.; Waldhaeusl W.; Pauschenwein S.; Rondot S.; Nowotny P.; Meyer K.; Frisch H.; Waldhauser F.; Vierhapper H.;
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86:4771-4775(2001)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 LEU-30; ASN-172; LEU-281; SER-291; TRP-356; SER-424; HIS-426; SER-453 AND PRO-483; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANT AH3 HIS-426;

Detection and assignment of CYP21 mutations using peptide mass signature genotyping.
Zeng X.; Witchel S.F.; Dobrowolski S.F.; Moulder P.V.; Jarvik J.W.; Telmer C.A.;
Mol. Genet. Metab. 82:38-47(2004)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 LEU-30; ASN-172; ASN-236; GLU-237; LYS-239; LEU-281; SER-291; GLN-356; TRP-356; TYR-365; SER-453; LEU-479 AND PRO-483; VARIANT ARG-102;

Phenotype-genotype correlations of 13 rare CYP21A2 mutations detected in 46 patients affected with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and in one carrier.
Tardy V.; Menassa R.; Sulmont V.; Lienhardt-Roussie A.; Lecointre C.; Brauner R.; David M.; Morel Y.;
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95:1288-1300(2010)
Cited for: VARIANTS AH3 THR-77; PRO-167; ASN-172; THR-230; LYS-233; LEU-281; SER-291; ASP-292; LYS-320; PRO-341; HIS-354; TRP-356; TRP-369; CYS-408; SER-424; HIS-426 AND SER-453; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS AH3 PRO-167; ASN-172; LEU-281; ASP-292; LYS-320; TRP-369 AND SER-424;

Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. They are not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnostic, treatment or care.