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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q93099: Variant p.Glu168Lys

Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
Gene: HGD
Variant information

Variant position:  168
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Type of variant:  Disease [Disclaimer]
The variants are classified into three categories: Disease, Polymorphism and Unclassified.
  • Disease: Variants implicated in disease according to literature reports.
  • Polymorphism: Variants not reported to be implicated in disease.
  • Unclassified: Variants with uncertain implication in disease according to literature reports. Evidence against or in favor of a pathogenic role is limited and/or conflicting.

Residue change:  From Glutamate (E) to Lysine (K) at position 168 (E168K, p.Glu168Lys).
Indicates the amino acid change of the variant. The one-letter and three-letter codes for amino acids used in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are those adopted by the commission on Biochemical Nomenclature of the IUPAC-IUB.

Physico-chemical properties:  Change from medium size and acidic (E) to large size and basic (K)
The physico-chemical property of the reference and variant residues and the change implicated.

BLOSUM score:  1
The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. The log-odds score measures the logarithm for the ratio of the likelihood of two amino acids appearing by chance. The Blosum62 substitution matrix is used. This substitution matrix contains scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another:
  • Lowest score: -4 (low probability of substitution).
  • Highest score: 11 (high probability of substitution).
More information can be found on the following page

Involvement in disease:  Alkaptonuria (AKU) [MIM:203500]: An autosomal recessive error of metabolism characterized by an increase in the level of homogentisic acid. The clinical manifestations are urine that turns dark on standing and alkalinization, black ochronotic pigmentation of cartilage and collagenous tissues, and spine arthritis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10205262, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10340975, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10482952, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10594001, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19862842, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21437689, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23353776, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23430897, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25681086, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8782815, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9154114, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9529363, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9630082}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
The name and a short description of the disease associated with the variant. For more information about the disease, the user can refer to OMIM, following the link provided after the disease acronym.

Variant description:  In AKU; loss of activity.
Any additional useful information about the variant.

Other resources:  
Links to websites of interest for the variant.

Sequence information

Variant position:  168
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Protein sequence length:  445
The length of the canonical sequence.

The residue change on the sequence. Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown.

Residue conservation: 
The multiple alignment of the region surrounding the variant against various orthologous sequences.






Sequence annotation in neighborhood:  
The regions or sites of interest surrounding the variant. In general the features listed are posttranslational modifications, binding sites, enzyme active sites, local secondary structure or other characteristics reported in the cited references. The "Sequence annotation in neighborhood" lines have a fixed format:
  • Type: the type of sequence feature.
  • Positions: endpoints of the sequence feature.
  • Description: contains additional information about the feature.

Chain 1 – 445 Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase

Literature citations

A novel point mutation associated with alkaptonuria.
Higashino K.; Liu W.; Ohkawa T.; Yamamoto T.; Fukui K.; Ohno M.; Imanishi H.; Iwasaki A.; Amuro Y.; Hada T.;
Clin. Genet. 53:228-229(1998)
Cited for: VARIANT AKU LYS-168;

Mutation spectrum of homogentisic acid oxidase (HGD) in alkaptonuria.
Vilboux T.; Kayser M.; Introne W.; Suwannarat P.; Bernardini I.; Fischer R.; O'Brien K.; Kleta R.; Huizing M.; Gahl W.A.;
Hum. Mutat. 30:1611-1619(2009)
Cited for: VARIANTS AKU ALA-3; ALA-42; GLY-60; PRO-61; CYS-62; LEU-73; THR-92; ARG-97; PHE-120; TRP-120; VAL-122; ARG-123; PRO-137; LEU-158; ARG-161; ASP-168; LYS-168; ARG-183; GLY-187; TRP-217; LEU-225; SER-230; PRO-258; ARG-269; ARG-270; GLY-300; PRO-321; LEU-359; ARG-360; GLU-362; VAL-368; LEU-373 AND GLN-401;

Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. They are not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnostic, treatment or care.