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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O60260: Variant p.Thr415Asn

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin
Gene: PRKN
Variant information

Variant position:  415
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Type of variant:  Disease [Disclaimer]
The variants are classified into three categories: Disease, Polymorphism and Unclassified.
  • Disease: Variants implicated in disease according to literature reports.
  • Polymorphism: Variants not reported to be implicated in disease.
  • Unclassified: Variants with uncertain implication in disease according to literature reports. Evidence against or in favor of a pathogenic role is limited and/or conflicting.

Residue change:  From Threonine (T) to Asparagine (N) at position 415 (T415N, p.Thr415Asn).
Indicates the amino acid change of the variant. The one-letter and three-letter codes for amino acids used in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are those adopted by the commission on Biochemical Nomenclature of the IUPAC-IUB.

Physico-chemical properties:  Similar physico-chemical property. Both residues are medium size and polar.
The physico-chemical property of the reference and variant residues and the change implicated.

BLOSUM score:  0
The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. The log-odds score measures the logarithm for the ratio of the likelihood of two amino acids appearing by chance. The Blosum62 substitution matrix is used. This substitution matrix contains scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another:
  • Lowest score: -4 (low probability of substitution).
  • Highest score: 11 (high probability of substitution).
More information can be found on the following page

Involvement in disease:  Parkinson disease 2 (PARK2) [MIM:600116]: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, tremor, and onset usually before 40. It differs from classic Parkinson disease by early DOPA-induced dyskinesia, diurnal fluctuation of the symptoms, sleep benefit, dystonia and hyper-reflexia. Dementia is absent. Pathologically, patients show loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, similar to that seen in Parkinson disease; however, Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins) are absent. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10072423, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10824074, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10888878, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10939576, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11163284, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11179010, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11431533, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11487568, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11590439, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11971093, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12056932, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12112109, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12114481, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12116199, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12362318, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12397156, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12629236, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12730996, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12925569, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15584030, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17360614, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19229105, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19801972, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20404107, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20889486, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20889974, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21376232, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22956510, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9560156, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9731209}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
The name and a short description of the disease associated with the variant. For more information about the disease, the user can refer to OMIM, following the link provided after the disease acronym.

Variant description:  In PARK2; impairs the ability to ubiquitinate SNCAIP; does not affect turnover of CDCRE1; impairs PINK1-dependent localization to dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria.
Any additional useful information about the variant.

Other resources:  
Links to websites of interest for the variant.



Sequence information

Variant position:  415
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Protein sequence length:  465
The length of the canonical sequence.

Location on the sequence:   ERAAEQARWEAASKETIKKT  T KPCPRCHVPVEKNGGCMHMK
The residue change on the sequence. Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown.

Residue conservation: 
The multiple alignment of the region surrounding the variant against various orthologous sequences.

Human                         ERAAEQARWEAASKETIKKTTKPCPRCHVPVEKNGGCMHMK

Mouse                         KRAAEQARWEEASKETIKKTTKPCPRCNVPIEKNGGCMHMK

Rat                           QRAAEQARWEEASKETIKKTTKPCPRCNVPIEKNGGCMHMK

Sequence annotation in neighborhood:  
The regions or sites of interest surrounding the variant. In general the features listed are posttranslational modifications, binding sites, enzyme active sites, local secondary structure or other characteristics reported in the cited references. The "Sequence annotation in neighborhood" lines have a fixed format:
  • Type: the type of sequence feature.
  • Positions: endpoints of the sequence feature.
  • Description: contains additional information about the feature.

TypePositionsDescription
Chain 1 – 465 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin
Region 234 – 465 TRIAD supradomain
Active site 431 – 431
Metal binding 418 – 418 Zinc 5
Metal binding 421 – 421 Zinc 5
Alternative sequence 298 – 465 Missing. In isoform 3.
Alternative sequence 369 – 465 Missing. In isoform 5.
Mutagenesis 403 – 403 W -> A. Decreased autoinhibition and increased E3 activity.
Mutagenesis 421 – 421 C -> A. Impairs the ability of self-ubiquitination and to ubiquitinate SNCAIP.
Mutagenesis 431 – 431 C -> S. Impairs the ability to ubiquitinate target proteins.
Mutagenesis 433 – 433 H -> NA. Impaired activity.
Beta strand 414 – 417


Literature citations

Parkin ubiquitinates the alpha-synuclein-interacting protein, synphilin-1: implications for Lewy-body formation in Parkinson disease.
Chung K.K.K.; Zhang Y.; Lim K.L.; Tanaka Y.; Huang H.; Gao J.; Ross C.A.; Dawson V.L.; Dawson T.M.;
Nat. Med. 7:1144-1150(2001)
Cited for: FUNCTION; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS PARK2 ARG-240; CYS-256; TRP-275 AND ASN-415; MUTAGENESIS OF CYS-337; CYS-421 AND CYS-431;

PINK1-dependent recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria in mitophagy.
Vives-Bauza C.; Zhou C.; Huang Y.; Cui M.; de Vries R.L.; Kim J.; May J.; Tocilescu M.A.; Liu W.; Ko H.S.; Magrane J.; Moore D.J.; Dawson V.L.; Grailhe R.; Dawson T.M.; Li C.; Tieu K.; Przedborski S.;
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107:378-383(2010)
Cited for: FUNCTION IN MITOCHONDRIAL AUTOPHAGY; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION; INTERACTION WITH PINK1; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS PARK ASN-415 AND ASP-430;

A wide variety of mutations in the parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive parkinsonism in Europe.
Abbas N.; Luecking C.B.; Ricard S.; Duerr A.; Bonifati V.; De Michele G.; Bouley S.; Vaughan J.R.; Gasser T.; Marconi R.; Broussolle E.; Brefel-Courbon C.; Harhangi B.S.; Oostra B.A.; Fabrizio E.; Bohme G.A.; Pradier L.; Wood N.W.; Filla A.; Meco G.; Denefle P.; Agid Y.; Brice A.;
Hum. Mol. Genet. 8:567-574(1999)
Cited for: VARIANTS PARK2 ASN-161; CYS-256; TRP-275 AND ASN-415; VARIANTS ASN-167; LEU-380 AND ASN-394;

Association between early-onset Parkinson's disease and mutations in the parkin gene.
Luecking C.B.; Duerr A.; Bonifati V.; Vaughan J.R.; De Michele G.; Gasser T.; Harhangi B.S.; Meco G.; Denefle P.; Wood N.W.; Agid Y.; Brice A.;
N. Engl. J. Med. 342:1560-1567(2000)
Cited for: VARIANTS PARK2 ASN-161; ASN-211; CYS-256; TRP-275; ASN-280; GLY-289; GLU-328; ASN-415 AND ASP-430; VARIANT CYS-334;

Novel parkin mutations detected in patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease.
Bertoli-Avella A.M.; Giroud-Benitez J.L.; Akyol A.; Barbosa E.; Schaap O.; van der Linde H.C.; Martignoni E.; Lopiano L.; Lamberti P.; Fincati E.; Antonini A.; Stocchi F.; Montagna P.; Squitieri F.; Marini P.; Abbruzzese G.; Fabbrini G.; Marconi R.; Dalla Libera A.; Trianni G.; Guidi M.; De Gaetano A.; Boff Maegawa G.; De Leo A.; Gallai V.; de Rosa G.; Vanacore N.; Meco G.; van Duijn C.M.; Oostra B.A.; Heutink P.; Bonifati V.;
Mov. Disord. 20:424-431(2005)
Cited for: VARIANTS PARK2 PRO-42; CYS-402; ASN-415 AND ARG-418;

Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. They are not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnostic, treatment or care.