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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P63267: Variant p.Arg178Leu

Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle
Gene: ACTG2
Variant information

Variant position:  178
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Type of variant:  Disease [Disclaimer]
The variants are classified into three categories: Disease, Polymorphism and Unclassified.
  • Disease: Variants implicated in disease according to literature reports.
  • Polymorphism: Variants not reported to be implicated in disease.
  • Unclassified: Variants with uncertain implication in disease according to literature reports. Evidence against or in favor of a pathogenic role is limited and/or conflicting.

Residue change:  From Arginine (R) to Leucine (L) at position 178 (R178L, p.Arg178Leu).
Indicates the amino acid change of the variant. The one-letter and three-letter codes for amino acids used in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are those adopted by the commission on Biochemical Nomenclature of the IUPAC-IUB.

Physico-chemical properties:  Change from large size and basic (R) to medium size and hydrophobic (L)
The physico-chemical property of the reference and variant residues and the change implicated.

BLOSUM score:  -2
The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. The log-odds score measures the logarithm for the ratio of the likelihood of two amino acids appearing by chance. The Blosum62 substitution matrix is used. This substitution matrix contains scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another:
  • Lowest score: -4 (low probability of substitution).
  • Highest score: 11 (high probability of substitution).
More information can be found on the following page

Involvement in disease:  Visceral myopathy (VSCM) [MIM:155310]: A rare inherited form of myopathic pseudo-obstruction characterized by impaired function of enteric smooth muscle cells, resulting in abnormal intestinal motility, severe abdominal pain, malnutrition, and even death. The disease shows inter- and intrafamilial variability. Most severely affected patients exhibit prenatal bladder enlargement, intestinal malrotation, neonatal functional gastrointestinal obstruction, and dependence on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22960657, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24337657, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24676022, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24777424}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
The name and a short description of the disease associated with the variant. For more information about the disease, the user can refer to OMIM, following the link provided after the disease acronym.

Variant description:  In VSCM; interferes with proper polymerization into thin filaments leading to impaired contractility of the smooth muscle.
Any additional useful information about the variant.

Other resources:  
Links to websites of interest for the variant.



Sequence information

Variant position:  178
The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence.

Protein sequence length:  376
The length of the canonical sequence.

Location on the sequence:   DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIM  R LDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG
The residue change on the sequence. Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown.

Residue conservation: 
The multiple alignment of the region surrounding the variant against various orthologous sequences.

Human                         DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIMRLDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG

Mouse                         DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIMRLDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG

Rat                           DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIMRLDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG

Bovine                        DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIMRLDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG

Chicken                       DGVTHNVPIYEGYALPHAIMRLDLAGRDLTDYLMKILTERG

Sequence annotation in neighborhood:  
The regions or sites of interest surrounding the variant. In general the features listed are posttranslational modifications, binding sites, enzyme active sites, local secondary structure or other characteristics reported in the cited references. The "Sequence annotation in neighborhood" lines have a fixed format:
  • Type: the type of sequence feature.
  • Positions: endpoints of the sequence feature.
  • Description: contains additional information about the feature.

TypePositionsDescription
Chain 2 – 376 Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle, intermediate form
Chain 3 – 376 Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle


Literature citations

De novo ACTG2 mutations cause congenital distended bladder, microcolon, and intestinal hypoperistalsis.
Thorson W.; Diaz-Horta O.; Foster J. II; Spiliopoulos M.; Quintero R.; Farooq A.; Blanton S.; Tekin M.;
Hum. Genet. 133:737-742(2014)
Cited for: VARIANTS VSCM CYS-178 AND LEU-178; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS VSCM CYS-178 AND LEU-178;

Disclaimer: Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. They are not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnostic, treatment or care.