Nothing can survive without the means to defend itself. If bacteria are unable to protect themselves from freezing temperatures, they perish. If we cannot fight off the flu virus, we pass away. If plants cannot ward off toxic fungi, they wilt and die. In fact, we all spend a lot of time shunning "stresses", of either biological (biotic) origin, or non-biological (abiotic) origin. The good part is that when an organism has managed to check an infection or deal with harsh conditions once, it does not forget and will react all the faster if the same thing occurs again. In other words, somehow and somewhere, memories are engraved in an organism. This is precisely how a vaccination works in humans. Needless to say, scientists have also found ways to prepare a plant's resistance mechanisms in advance by treating it with certain substances or presenting it with stressful environmental conditions. This is called plant defence priming. Researchers also observed that this acquired state of a plant can also be inherited, which is like passing down a form of instinct: that of knowing how to deal with the enemy. One protein is known to be involved in the priming process, and has no doubt a role in preserving this protective memory. It has been named protein Impaired in BABA-Induced Sterility 1, or IBS1.
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Snapshot : NOX2 protein
Our defense mechanism has no pity. Foreign matter for whom our organism can be a great playing field is rapidly dealt with. Virus, bacteria, pollen or even tumor cells face a merciless battle against the soldiers of our immune system: the white cells. Despite this, and however well-disposed these white cells may be, they cannot cross the cell barrier which isolates the brain from the rest of our body. So how does such a vital organ fight off invaders? The answer is: microglia.
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